The most obvious way to assess student learning is by graded assignments or exams. However, many other assessment techniques exist to help you and your students understand their mastery of knowledge and skills. For instance, one-minute papers can reveal much about what students learned during one class session and what might confuse them. Discussion, small-group work, class surveys, written reflections, periodic questionnaires, and self-evaluation of learning also help both instructor and students evaluate where they stand in terms of learning content and developing a facility with required skills.